|Posted by Merrille & Craig Jones on June 17, 2011 at 4:27 PM||comments (189)|
13 to 16 years
The Yorkshire terrier is a small dog breed of terrier type, developed in the 19th century in the historical area of Yorkshire, England to catch rats in clothing mills. The defining features of the breed are its size, 3 pounds (1.4 kg) to 7 pounds (3.2 kg), and its silky blue and tan coat. The breed is nicknamed Yorkie and is placed in the Toy Terrier section of the Terrier Group by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale and in the Toy Group or Companion Group by other kennel clubs, although all agree that the breed is a terrier. A popular companion dog, the Yorkshire terrier has also been part of the development of other breeds, such as the Australian Silky Terrier.
For adult Yorkshire terriers, the importance is placed on its coat colour, its quality, and its texture. The hair must be glossy, fine, straight, and silky. Traditionally the coat is grown-out long and is parted down the middle of the back, but "must never impede movement.
From the back of the neck to the base of the tail, the coat should be a dark gray to a steel-blue, and the hair on the tail should be a darker blue. On the head, high chest, and legs, the hair should be a bright, rich tan, darker at the roots than in the middle, that shades into a lighter tan at the tips. Also, in adult dogs, there should be no dark hairs intermingled with any of the tan coloured fur.
A Yorkshire terrier puppy, 4 weeks old, displaying the characteristic black/steel black and tan coat.
Adult Yorkshire terriers that have other coat colours than the above, or that have woolly or extra fine coats, are still considered to be Yorkshire terriers, and will be just as good of a companion as a dog with the correct coat. The only difference is that atypical Yorkshire terriers should not be bred. In addition, care may be more difficult for "woolly" or "cottony" textured coats, or coats that are overly fine. One of the reasons given for not breeding "off-coloured" Yorkies is that the colour could be a potential indicator of a genetic defect that may affect the dog's health, a careful health screening can clarify if any health risks exist or not.
A newborn Yorkie puppy is born black with tan points on the muzzle, above the eyes, around the legs and feet and toes, the inside of the ears, and the underside of the tail. Occasionally Yorkies are born with a white "star" on the chest or on one or more toes. These markings fade with age, and are usually gone within a few months. A white "star" on the chest is generally an indication that the puppy will be a good coat grower in quantity, but not necessarily quality.
It may take up to three years or more for the coat to reach its final colour. P. H. Coombs, writing in 1891, complained about show wins awarded to puppies, when the dog's coat does not fully come in until three or four years old, "and the honour of winning such a prize (for a puppy) can therefore be of but little practical benefit to the owner" since the adult dog's colour cannot be exactly predicted.
Hypoallergenic dog breed
The typical fine, straight, and silky Yorkshire terrier coat has also been listed by many popular dog information websites as being hypoallergenic. In comparison with many other breeds, Yorkies do not shed to the same degree, only losing small amounts when bathed or brushed. All dogs shed, and it is the dog's dander and saliva that trigger most allergic reactions. Allergists do recognise that at times a particular allergy patient will be able to tolerate a particular dog, but they agree that "the luck of the few with their pets cannot be stretched to fit all allergic people and entire breeds of dogs. The Yorkshire terrier coat is said to fall out only when brushed or broken, or just said to not shed. Although neither of those statements agree with what biologists, veterinarians, and allergists know about dog fur, allergists "think there really are differences in protein production between dogs that may help one patient and not another", meaning that some allergic people may not have allergic reactions to a specific dog, like the Yorkie.
If the coat is the correct silky texture, maintenance for it is relatively easy, requiring a daily brushing and a bath every month. Owners may trim the fur short for easier care. For shows, the coat is left long, and may be trimmed to floor length to give ease of movement and a neater appearance. Hair on the feet and the tips of ears can also be trimmed.
The traditional long coat is extremely high maintenance. To prevent breakage, the coat may be wrapped in rice paper, tissue paper, or plastic, after a light oiling with a coat oil. The oil has to be washed out once a month and the wraps must be fixed periodically during the week to prevent them from sliding down and breaking the hair. Elaborate care of the beautiful coat dates from the earliest days of the breed. In 1878, John Walsh described similar preparations: the coat is "well greased" with coconut oil, the dog is bathed weekly, and the dog's feet are "carefully kept in stockings.
The Yorkshire terrier is a tan dog with a blue saddle. Parti colours exist, although they are not correct for the breed standard. The parti colour coat Is white with black/blue and tan. It's very rare to get a a parti colour Yorkie, and if they are found they tend to be very expensive. The breed is defined by its colour, and colours promoted as "rare" may indicate health problems or cross-breeding with other breeds of other colours.The AKC registration form for Yorkshire terriers allows for four choices: blue and tan, blue and gold, black and tan, black and gold. Colour alone will not affect whether or not a dog is a good companion and pet. Even though off-coloured Yorkshire terriers are advertised at premium prices, being of an unusual or untypical colour is neither new, desirable, nor exotic.
Until recently, mismarked Yorkshire terriers could be crossed with Biewer terriers, a new breed originated in Germany from parti coloured Yorkshire terriers. Although the American Kennel Club will not deny registration of a Yorkshire terrier on colour alone, the Yorkshire terrier Club of America has a directive that "any solid colour or combination of colours other than blue and tan" for adult dogs is a disqualification, and "dogs of solid colour, unusual combination of colours, and parti-colours should be disqualified.
The ideal Yorkshire terrier character or "personality" is described with a "carriage very upright" and "conveying an important air. Though small, the Yorkshire terrier is active, loves attention, very overprotective and should not show the soft temperament seen in lap dogs.
The Yorkshire terrier breed is bold and active. They are brave for such a small breed. They are, however, also quite loyal and affectionate. Yorkshire terrier puppies are especially loving and cuddly with their owners in their first 2–3 year
The Yorkshire terrier originated in Yorkshire (and the adjoining Lancashire), a rugged region in northern England. In the mid-19th century, workers from Scotland came to Yorkshire in search of work and brought with them several different varieties of small terriers. Breeding of the Yorkshire terrier was "principally accomplished by the people--mostly operatives in cotton and woolen mills--in the counties of Yorkshire and Lancashire. Details are scarce. Mrs. A. Foster is quoted as saying in 1886, "If we consider that the mill operatives who originated the breed...were nearly all ignorant men, unaccustomed to imparting information for public use, we may see some reason why reliable facts have not been easily attained.
What is known is that the breed sprang from three different dogs, a male named Old Crab and a female named Kitty, and another female whose name is not known. The Paisley Terrier, a smaller version of the Skye Terrier that was bred for a beautiful long silky coat, also figured into the early dogs. Some authorities believed that the Maltese was used as well.They were all originally bred from Scotch terriers (note: meaning dogs from Scotland, not today's Scottish Terrier) and shown as such...the name Yorkshire terrier was given to them on account of their being improved so much in Yorkshire.Yorkshire terriers were shown in a dog show category (class) at the time called "Rough and Broken-coated, Broken-haired Scotch and Yorkshire terriers". Hugh Dalziel, writing in 1878, says that "the classification of these dogs at shows and in the Kennel Club Stud Book is confusing and absurd" in lumping together these different types.
In the early days of the breed, "almost anything in the shape of a Terrier having a long coat with blue on the body and fawn or silver coloured head and legs, with tail docked and ears trimmed, was received and admired as a Yorkshire terrier". But in the late 1860s, a popular Paisley type Yorkshire terrier showdog named Huddersfield Ben, owned by a woman living in Yorkshire, Mary Ann Foster, was seen at dog shows throughout Great Britain, and defined the breed type for the Yorkshire terrier.
Huddersfield Ben was a famous dog. His portrait was painted by George Earl and in 1891 an authority on the breed wrote, "Huddersfield Ben was the best stud dog of his breed during his life-time, and one of the most remarkable dogs of any pet breed that ever lived; and most of the show specimens of the present day have one or more crosses of his blood in their pedigree. A show winner, Huddersfield Ben quickly became the type of dog everyone wanted, and through his puppies has defined the breed as we know it today. He is still referred to as "father of the breed.
The Yorkshire terrier was introduced in North America in 1872 and the first Yorkshire terrier was registered with the American Kennel Club (AKC) in 1885.During the Victorian era, the Yorkshire terrier was a popular pet and showdog in England, and as Americans embraced Victorian customs, so too did they embrace the Yorkshire terrier.The breed's popularity dipped in the 1940s, when the percentage of small breed dogs registered fell to an all-time low of 18% of total registrations. Smoky, a Yorkshire terrier and famous war dog from World War II, is credited with beginning a renewal of interest in the breed.
A number of health issues, some of them hereditary, have been found in individual Yorkshire terriers, and are listed below. There is no data on the percentage of dogs with these ailments, and it is not suggested that all Yorkshire terriers have all of these ailments, or that any particular dog has any of these ailments. Puppy buyers are advised to ask breeders if tests have been done for these diseases.
Health issues often seen in the Yorkshire terrier include bronchitis, lymphangiectasia, portosystemic shunt, cataracts, and keratitis sicca. Additionally, injection reactions (inflammation or hair loss at the site of an injection) can occur. In addition they may have skin allergies.
Like other small breeds, Yorkies are also prone to severe dental disease. Because they have a small jaw, their teeth can become crowded and may not fall out naturally. This can cause food and plaque to build up, and bacteria can eventually develop on the surface of the teeth, leading to periodontal disease. In addition, the bacteria can spread to other parts of the body and cause heart and kidney problems. The best prevention is regular brushing of the teeth with a toothpaste formulated specifically for dogs. Human toothpaste is not recommended, because it foams easier and may be swallowed. Professional teeth cleaning by a veterinarian may also be required to prevent the development of dental problems.
Certain genetic disorders have been found in Yorkshire terriers, including distichiasis, hydrocephalus, hypoplasia of dens, Legg–Calvé–Perthes syndrome, luxating patella, portosystemic shunt, retinal dysplasia, tracheal collapse, and bladder stones. The following are among the most common congenital defects that affect Yorkies.
Distichiae, eyelashes arising from an abnormal spot (usually the duct of the meibomian gland at the edge of the eyelid), are often found in Yorkies. Distichiae can irritate the eye and cause tearing, squinting, inflammation, corneal abrasions or corneal ulcers, and scarring. Treatment options may include manual removal, electrolysis, or surgery.
Hypoplasia of dens is a non-formation of the pivot point of the second cervical vertebra, which leads to spinal cord damage. Onset of the condition may occur at any age, producing signs ranging from neck pain to quadriplegia.
Legg–Calvé–Perthes syndrome, which causes the top of the femur (thigh bone) to degenerate, occurs in Yorkies in certain lines. The condition appears to result from insufficient circulation to the area around the hip joint. As the blood supply is reduced, the bone in the head of the femur collapses and dies and the cartilage coating around it becomes cracked and deformed. Usually the disease appears when the Yorkie is young (between five and eight months of age); signs are pain, limping, or lameness. The standard treatment is surgery to remove the affected part of the bone. Following surgery, muscles hold the femur in place and fibrous tissue forms in the area of removal to prevent bone rubbing on bone. Although the affected leg will be slightly shorter than prior to surgery, the Yorkie may regain almost normal use.
Luxating patellas (slipping kneecaps) are another common defect considered to be genetic in Yorkies, although it may also be caused by an accidental fall. Weak ligaments and tendons in the knee or malformed (too shallow) patellar grooves, allow the patella to slip out of its groove sideways. This causes the leg to 'lock up' with the foot held off the ground. A dog with this problem may experience frequent pain and lameness or may be bothered by it only on occasion. Over time, the patellar ridges can become worn down, making the groove even more shallow and causing the dog to become increasingly lame. Surgery is the main treatment option available for luxating patellas, although it is not necessary for every dog with the condition.
Portosystemic shunt, a congenital malformation of the portal vein (which brings blood to the liver for cleansing), is also common in Yorkies. In this condition some of the dog's blood bypasses the liver and the "dirty" blood goes on to poison the heart, brain, lungs, and other organs with toxins. A Yorkie with this condition might exhibit a wide variety of symptoms, such as small stature, poor appetite, weak muscle development, decreased ability to learn, inferior coordination, occasional vomiting and diarrhoea, behavioral abnormalities, seizures (especially after a meal), and blindness, which could lead to a coma and death. Often, the shunt can be treated with surgery.
Tracheal collapse, caused by a progressive weakening of the walls of the trachea, occurs in many toy breeds, especially very tiny Yorkies. As a result of genetics, the walls of the trachea can be flaccid, a condition that becomes more severe with age. Cushing's syndrome, a disorder that causes production of excess steroid hormone by the adrenal glands, can also weaken cartilage and lead to tracheal collapse. There is a possibility that physical strain on the neck might cause or contribute to trachea collapse. Since this is usually caused by an energetic Yorkie pulling against his collar, many veterinarians recommend use of a harness for leashed walks. An occasional "goose honking" cough, especially on exertion or excitement, is usually the first sign of this condition. Over time, the cough may become almost constant in the Yorkie's later life. Breathing through the obstruction of a collapsed (or partially collapsed) trachea for many years can result in complications, including chronic lung disease. The coughing can be countered with cough suppressants and bronchodilators. If the collapse is advanced and unresponsive to medication, sometimes surgery can repair the trachea.
Low blood sugar in puppies, or transient juvenile hypoglycemia, is caused by fasting (too much time between meals). In rare cases hypoglycemia may continue to be a problem in mature, usually very small, Yorkies. It is often seen in Yorkie puppies at 5 to 16 weeks of age. Very tiny Yorkie puppies are especially predisposed to hypoglycemia because a lack of muscle mass makes it difficult to store glucose and regulate blood sugar. Factors such as stress, fatigue, a cold environment, poor nutrition, and a change in diet or feeding schedule may bring on hypoglycemia. Low blood sugar can also be the result of a bacterial infection, parasite, or portosystemic liver shunt. Hypoglycemia causes the puppy to become drowsy, listless (glassy-eyed), shaky, uncoordinated, since the brain relies on sugar to function. During a hypoglycemic attack, the puppy usually has very pale or grey gums. The puppy also may not eat unless force-fed. Hypoglycemia and dehydration seem to go hand-in-hand, and force-feeding or injecting fluids may also be necessary. Additionally, a hypoglycemic Yorkie may have a lower than normal body temperature and, in extreme cases, may have a seizure or go into a coma. A dog showing symptoms should be given sugar in the form of corn syrup or NutriCal and be treated by a veterinarian immediately, as prolonged or recurring attacks of hypoglycemia can permanently damage the dog's brain. In severe cases it can be fatal.
The life span of a healthy Yorkie is 12–15 years. Extremely under-sized Yorkies (3 pounds or less, and often promoted as "Teacups") generally have a shorter life span (3-7 years on average), as they are especially prone to health problems such as chronic diarrhoea and vomiting and are more easily injured. Even the normal small size of a Yorkshire terrier means that it can have a poor tolerance for anesthesia, and it is more likely to be killed or injured by falls, other dogs, and owner clumsiness.
Traditionally, the Yorkshire terrier's tail is docked to a medium length. Opposition to this practice began very early in the history of the breed; Hugh Dalziel, writing about Yorkshire terriers in 1878, declared that "There is no reason for mutilating pet dogs, and perfect ears and tails should be bred, not clipped into shape with scissors. Often a Yorkshire terrier's dewclaws, if any, are removed in the first few days of life another, controversial practice.
The Yorkshire terrier breed descends from larger but similar Scottish breeds such as the now extinct Paisley Terrier and the Skye Terrier. In its turn, other breeds have been created from the Yorkshire terrier, such as the Australian Silky Terrier and the Biewer Terrier, bred from a blue, white, and gold puppy they later named Schneeflocken von Friedheck, by Mr. and Mrs. Biewer of Germany. Demand for unusual pets has resulted in high prices being paid for Yorkshire terriers crossed with various other breeds, which are described with a portmanteau word made up of syllables (or sounds) from Yorkshire terrier and the breed name of the other parent. A list of such portmanteau-named crosses can be found on the List of dog hybrids page. It is fashionable to merchandise crossbreed and mixed breed dogs with the word hybrid, which implies two different animal species, but all Yorkshire terrier crossbreeds are just dogs.
In 1997, Champion Ozmilion Mystification became the first Yorkie to win Best in Show at Crufts, the world's largest annual dog show.
Champion WA Mozart Dolce Sinfonia ("Mozart") is a show dog owned by socialite Sabrina A. Parisi. He was featured in the Krassimir Abramov music video for "Say Goodbye" and will star in the upcoming documentary It's a Dog Life from director Vibeke Muasya. On 11 May 2006, Mozart attended Krassimir's concert at the Kodak Theatre in Hollywood, becoming the first dog to enter the venue.
Sylvia, a matchbox-size Yorkshire terrier owned by Arthur Marples of Blackburn, England, was the smallest dog in recorded history. The dog died in 1945 when she was two years old, at which point she stood 2.5 inches tall at the shoulder, measured 3.5 inches from nose tip to tail, and weighed 4 ounces.
For 1995 through 2002 Guinness World Records listed a Yorkshire terrier named Big Boss, as the smallest dog in the world. Big Boss was listed at 11.94 cm (4.7 in) tall when his owner, Dr. Chai Khanchanakom of Thailand, registered the toy dog with Guinness.
A Yorkie named Thumbelina, 5.5 inches tall and 8 inches long, held the Guinness World Record for smallest living dog prior to 1995.
Tiny Pinocchio, an abnormally small Yorkshire terrier, has appeared on several television programs including Oprah and the Today Show.
Smoky, a war dog and hero of World War II, was owned by William Wynne of Cleveland, Ohio. Wynne adopted Smoky while he was serving with the 5th Air Force in the Pacific.
Pasha, Tricia Nixon Cox's pet Yorkie, lived in the White House during the Richard Nixon presidency.
1.^ a b c d American Kennel Club Standard
2.^ a b c Kennel Club Standard
3.^ quote: "A responsible breeder will not intentionally breed for undesirable traits."
4.^ a b "An Important Note About Colour in Yorkshire terriers", from the US national breed club
5.^ a b Yorkiepassion. "Yorkie puppy coat colour stages...," http://www.yorkiepassion.com/coatcolorchanges.htm Accessed 10 March 2009
6.^ a b Disqualification Directive, 26 September 2007
7.^ The American book of the Dog, edited by G. O. Shields, Rand, McNally & Company, Publishers, Chicago and New York, 1891, no ISBN. Section on the Yorkshire written by P. H. Coombs
8.^ Jeffrey Adelglass, M.D., ear, nose, throat and allergy information quote: "No dog is considered non-allergenic because all dogs produce dander, saliva, and urine which are the offending allergens."
9.^ Mayo Clinic, Pet allergy
10.^ a b  Nonallergenic Dog? Not Really by Denise Grady, New York Times, 5 February 1997]
11.^ Wash, John. "Yorkshire Terrier". NetPets. Retrieved 21 February 2007.
12.^ The Dogs of the British Islands, pg 212, by John Henry Walsh, The Filed publisher, 1878, Third Edition
13.^ a b "Parti-Color Yorkshire Terriers? ", from the US national breed club
14.^ Biewer club. In 2007 The Biewer Terrier Club of America, Inc. disallowed Yorkshire Terrier to Biewer Terrier breeding in order to produce a purebred breed of Biewer Terrier.
15.^ a b Weston, Lee. "Yorkshire Terrier History". BarkBytes.com. Retrieved 25 February 2007.
16.^ a b P. H. Coombs in The American Book of the Dog, pg 443, edited by G. O. Shields, Rand, McNally & Company, Publishers, Chicago and New York 1891 no ISBN
17.^ a b Mrs. A Foster of Bradford, England, quoted by James Watson in the Century Magazine in 1886; on page 441 of The American Book of the Dog, pg 454, edited by G. O. Shields, Rand, McNally & Company, Publishers, Chicago and New York 1891, no ISBN
18.^ 1885 article by Ed. Bootman of Halifax, England was printed in The Stock-Keeper, detailing the breed's origins, discussed pg 441-442 The American Book of the Dog, edited by G. O. Shields, Rand, McNally & Company, Publishers, Chicago and New York 1891 no ISBN
19.^ British dogs, their points, selection, and show preparation, by William D. Drury, pg 582 published 1903, L. Upcott Gill, London, and Charles Scribner's Sons, New York (no ISBN) Quote: "I think the Yorkshire gets the softness and length of coat due to Maltese blood".
20.^ a b quoted inThe dogs of the British Islands, by John Henry Walsh, The Filed, publisher, 1878, Third Edition, pg 213
21.^ a b Clark, Anne Rogers; Andrew H. Brace (1995). The International Encyclopedia of Dogs. Howell Book House. pp. 484. ISBN 0-87605-624-9.
22.^ 2006 art exhibition catalog "Best in Show, the Dog in Art from the Reinaissance to Today", notes by Edgar Peters Bowron, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-11588-1
23.^ P. H. Coombs in The American Book of the Dog, pg 454, edited by G. O. Shields, Rand, McNally & Company, Publishers, Chicago and New York 1891 no ISBN
24.^ Yorkshire Terrier - Know Dog Breeds
25.^ "Yorkshire Terrier". Yahoo! Pets. Archived from the original on 29 March 2007. Retrieved 22 December 2010.
26.^ "Yorkies Have Their Year! Tiny Toy Overtakes Venerable Favorites - Golden Retriever and German Shepherd - as Second Most Popular Dog in America". AKC News. 7 January 2007. Retrieved 25 February 2007.
27.^ "Special Issue: Yorkshire Terrier". Popular Dog Magazine. 2001.
28.^ a b Linville, Robert L. (6 March 2006). "Breed Predisposition to Disease and Congenital Conditions". Dr. Bob's All Creatures Site. Retrieved 13 March 2007.
29.^ Template:Cite web title =Caring For Your Yorkshire Terrier: Common Health Problems
30.^ a b "Hereditary and Congenital Diseases of Purebred Dogs" (pdf). Kansas State University. Retrieved 13 March 2007.
31.^ a b c d Schultz, Jacque Lynn (2004). "The Terrier Tyke With a Big Attitude". ASPCA. Retrieved 10 March 2007.
32.^ Distichiasis Can Damage Corneas in Cavaliers, Cavalier Health, 2007, retrieved 4 March 2007
33.^ a b Degner, Danial (2004). "Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (or Legg-Perthes disease)". Vet Surgery Central Inc.. Retrieved 4 March 2007.
34.^ a b c Voit, Pam. "Legg Perthe's Disease: What you Should Know". Retrieved 4 March 2007.
35.^ Degner, Danial (2004). "Femoral Head and Neck Excision". Vet Surgery Central Inc.. Retrieved 4 March 2007.
36.^ a b c Foster, Race; Smith, Marty (2007). "Luxating Patella". PetEducation.com. Retrieved 5 March 2007.
37.^ a b c d e Degner, Danial (2004). "Tracheal Collapse". Vet Surgery Central Inc.. Retrieved 4 March 2007.
38.^ Cushing's Disease in Cavaliers
39.^ a b c d e "Hypoglycemia symptoms and treatment". Go Pets America. Retrieved 10 March 2007.
40.^ O'Neil, Jacqueline (2007). "Dealing with Your Chihuahua's Health Issues (Adapted from Chihuahuas for Dummies)". Dummies.com. Retrieved 10 March 2007.
41.^ Brooks, Wendy C. (31 July 2005). "Toy Breed Hypoglycemia". VeterinaryPartner.com. Retrieved 10 March 2007.
42.^ Yorkies of Walnut Hill, Yorkie Hypoglycemia, http://www.yorkiesllc.com/yorkieinfo/yorkiehypoglycemia.html Accessed 8 June 2009.
43.^ a b Weston, Lee. "Hypoglycemia". Pomeranian Club of Canada. Retrieved 10 March 2007.
44.^ Fédération Cynologique Internationale breed standard
45.^ Fédération Cynologique Internationale breed standard
46.^ "Biewer Terrier Standard". Biewer Terrier Club of America. Retrieved 21 December 2009.
47.^ "Crufts Best in Show Roll of Honour 1990 - 1999". The Kennel Club. 7 August 2006. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved 7 March 2007.
48.^ Linzy, Jan (2003). Yorkshire Terrier Champions, 1994-2001. Camino E E & Book Co. ISBN 1558931082.
49.^ "Anything Can Happen in Hollywood". DogueBlog. DogueMag. 2007. Retrieved 3 May 2007.
50.^ Choron, Sandra; Choron, Harry (2005). Planet Dog: A Doglopedia. Houghton Mifflin. pp. 92. ISBN 0618517529.
51.^ "What is the worlds smallist (sic) dog?: Answer 6". Yahoo! Answers. Retrieved 9 March 2007. See also Barr, Tracy; Veling, Peter F. (20 August 2004). Yorkshire Terriers for Dummies. For Dummies. ISBN 0764568809.
52.^ "Farewell to the Smallest Dog in the World". The Scoop. 15 January 2002. Retrieved 17 February 2007.
53.^ "World's smallest dog debuts". CNN - World News Briefs. 10 December 1995. Retrieved 10 March 2007.
54.^ Zucco, Tom (22 April 2003). "World's Tiniest Dog?". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved 17 February 2007.
55.^ Skeels-Hopson, Linda (2003). "Appearances: Things We Did in 2003". TinyPinocchio.com. Retrieved 17 February 2007.
56.^ Wynne, Bill. "Smoky 'Corporal Smoky' United States Army/Air Corps". PatsyAnn.com. Retrieved 15 February 2007.
57.^ "Ti.me & Again: White House Pets". MSNBC. 1998. Archived from the original on 21 October 2006. Retrieved 25 February 2007